INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center"><img src="/public/site/images/sjadmin/ijpen.jpg"></div> <div class="col-md-8"> <p>International Journal of Plant and Environment (IJPE) is an official organ of International Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB). It is an inclusive peer reviewed interdisciplinary journal aimed to advance the interaction of plant and environmental science for the betterment of all stake holders of the society, present and in the future. IJPE has been founded by a team of botanists and environmental scientists to accelerate the gait of scientific advancement and establishing its value. We publish the research in environmental botany and allied fields aimed to benefit the scientific society, academicians and policy makers.</p> <p>IJPE welcomes high quality submissions on all aspects of environmental contamination or air, water and land, bioremediation strategies for pollutants, bio-indication, eco-system dynamics and forest degradation, environment and biodiversity conservation, sustainable agriculture, global change impacts on plants. Responses of plants to abiotic stresses (salinity, heavy metals, drought, temperature stress, flooding etc.) and biotic stress (plant insect, plant microbe interaction etc.), plant environmental interaction at morphology, physiology and molecular levels. Submitted manuscripts are evaluated on the basis of methodological rigor and high ethical standards besides, perceived novelty.</p> <p>IJPE intends publication under different categories, viz., original research papers, short research communications, research update/ mini reviews, commentaries. The original research articles, mini reviews/ research update shall not exceed 10 printed pages. The articles published under the short communication category are expected to contain path breaking researches requiring urgent publication. The length of such articles shall be restricted to five printed pages.</p> </div> </div> <div class="row">&nbsp;</div> MRI Publication Pvt. Ltd en-US INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT 2454-1117 Plants, Fertilizer Nitrogen, and Environment: An Overview Fertilizer N has played a key role in increasing food production, especially of cereals and grasses in the world. However, fertilizer N has been also responsible for global warming, enhancing nitrate concentration in drinking water, and depleting the ozone layer. Crop plants also release ammonia, while trees absorb ammonia from the atmosphere. Agriculture soil can contribute 84% of global N2O emission and it is now considered nitrogen next after CO2 for global warming. In India, the average nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is 33% which is far-reaching 50% acceptable and its consumption increased by 52 times from 1961 to 2018, but cereals production by 3.6 times. Therefore, approaches, such as, 4R, LCC, SPAD, Green Seeker, using control, and slow-release nitrogen fertilizers, using inhibitors along with SSNM may improve NUE in the developing world. Yashbir Singh Shivay Rajendra Prasad Sunil Mandi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 98 102 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.01 Bougainvillea (Commerson and Jussieu): A Pollution and Drought Tolerant Plant Bougainvillea, native of South American tropics and subtropics, is a tropical and subtropical woody, evergreen, shrubby vine. Due to its brightly coloured bracts, the Bougainvillea is incomparable both in beauty and utility, particularly in the gardens of the tropics and subtropics. It is grown in the ground as well as, in pots. So far worldwide 18 species have been reported and about 300 varieties have been developed. Many crosses among the various species have produced new hybrid species and important horticultural cultivars. It can thrive well in varied conditions of environment and soil. It can grow in most well-drained soils, and even in small pockets of soil in between rocks. Its roots grow deep into the ground, become self-supporting, and require very little care and attention. Bougainvillea is a pollution tolerant plant and can help in the mitigation of air pollution besides its ornamental value. Bougainvillea is used as an accent plant, a specimen plant, in hanging baskets, in containers, and for bonsai purpose. Drought tolerance makes Bougainvillea ideal for warm climates year-round. It is tolerant to salt, drought and resistant to wind. Due to the great demand, this ornamental plant requires the appropriate management of the large scale plant production, and subsequently the adequate logistics. In fact, during the transport Bougainvillea plants are often subjected to a water stress leading to various physiological disorders. Tolerance of plants to a drought stress increases the resistance to the stress during the transport. Botanical Survey of India and CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow has contributed significantly in its varietal development. Suresh Chandra Sharma Yogesh Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 103 109 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.02 A Comparative Study on Effect of Arsenic on Thiolic Ligands and Phytochelatins in Contrasting Arsenic Accumulating Rice Genotypes Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic element present in the environment, hence, detrimental to biota. Rice due to highly expressed silicon pathways accumulates As more than other cereals crops. Moreover, this cereal is the major staple diet of billions of people. The current study was done to analyze the responses of two contrasting rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes [high As accumulating rice genotypes (HAARG) and low As accumulating rice genotypes (LAARG)] in terms of thiol and phytochelatins (PCs) synthesis, during arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII) exposure. AsV and AsIII moderated the thiolic pathway which was evident by different metabolite levels in two genotypes. The synthesis of PCs and consequently the formation of PC-As complexes under As stress was more in HAARG than in LAARG. It may be considered that the plants triggered synthesis, as well as, consumption pathway of thiols to counter As toxicity. However, elevated concentration of AsV and AsIII caused disturbances of this balance resulting in phytotoxicity in HAARG even after the accumulation of a higher level of PCs. In contrast, LAARG showed less up-regulation of PCs, however, it was adequate to combat relatively low As concentrations. The results indicate that if the synthesis of thiols and PCs are stimulated to an optimum level, it helps rice plants tolerate As toxicity effectively. Kiran Gupta Amit Kumar Pradyumna Kumar Singh Sudhakar Srivastava Sanjay Dwivedi Rudra Deo Tripathi Garima Awasthi Mohammad Israil Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 110 117 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.03 Degradation of Pesticide Chlorpyrifos by Soil Bacteria Achoromobacter xylosoxidans (Accession No. KX817809.1) with Bioremediation Potential Chlorpyrifos is a very widely used insecticide and considered one of the most frequently used chlorinated organophosphorus pesticides. In all the currently used method for removing such contaminants from the environment, the biodegradation has been shown to be more effective than any other method. Many pesticide degrading bacteria were isolated and identified through the colony, biochemical tests, and further identified by the 16S RNA sequencing method. The most potent strain grow in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon (150 to 1,000 μg/mL) and was monitored at an optical density of 600 nm. The growth parameters at different physical and chemical conditions were further optimized. The result showed that Achoromobacter xylosoxidans (accession no. KX817809.1) had maximum growth after 8 days. The present study shows that the isolated bacteria can be used for bioremediation of pesticide chlorpyrifos in a contaminated environment. Tanuja . Sonal Suman Satyamvada Swayamprabha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 118 121 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.04 Evaluation of the Functionality of GeoTube® based Physicochemical Faecal Sludge Treatment: A Cursory Alternate With the rampant boom in faecal sludge (FS) collection and management in line with Indian government’s agenda, quite a few urban local bodies (ULBs) in Telangana such as Greater Warangal Municipal Corporation (GWMC) initiated into establishing faecal sludge treatment plant (FSTP) in collaboration with experienced private technology partners such as Banka BioLoo Limited. FSTPs were so designed with minimal mechanical components to regularize it as a popular choice for rural and sub-urban. The GeoTube based technology makes use of an organic flocculant to maximize the floc formation and thereby the water recovery. Post-flocculation the sludge is fed into a semi permeable polypropylene trap (GeoTube®) with a pore size of 0.3 mm. The method of dewatering the septage with the aid of GeoTube was so designed to ensure greater than 98% efficacy. Ultimately, the above effluent gets polished with a series of tertiary units such as pressure sand filter, activated carbon filter, UV disinfection, etc. The permeate meets the inland water disposal standards and is used to maintain the green belt in and around the plant. The trapped biosolids are self-composted for more than two months inside the filled tubes. Further, the debagged material is analyzed to ensure compliance with physico-chemical, metallic, and pathogenic limits. Afterward, the final materials pulverized, packed, and distributed amid the local farmers to be used as a soil conditioner. The FSTP has been successfully running for about two years now and has to date treated more than 2 million liters of septage of which recycled almost 1500 kL of water and 35 tons of biosolids. Atun Roy Choudhury Rajarshi Banerjee Namita Banka Mahalakshmi Lanke Jheelam Sarkar Sai Charan Anandapu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 122 128 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.05 Net Primary Productivity and Budget of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Herbaceous Layer of a Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest in Rajasthan in Northwest India The net primary productivity and budget of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the herbaceous layer was studied in a tropical dry deciduous thorn forest in Rajasthan state of north-western India. The average net primary productivity of the herbaceous layer was 242 g m-2yr-1, it was the highest (257 g m-2 yr-1) at the top and the lowest (218 g m-2 yr-1) at the middle of the hill slope. Out of the herbaceous species present in the study site, 29 species contributed more than 1 g m-2 biomass with the highest contribution by Brachiaria ramosa (54%) and Achyranthes aspera (44%). The herbs allocated about 10 and 90% of total biomass to roots and above-ground parts, respectively. The highest content of nitrogen in the soil, biomass, and litter was 181, 3.4, and 1.7 g m-2, respectively, during the rainy season in July. A similar pattern was observed for phosphorus. The annual uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by vegetation was 3.84 g m-2 and 0.76 g m-2 ; 19 and 16%, respectively, return to the soil through litterfall. Before the litterfall occurred, the nitrogen, a vital element was translocated into below-ground parts. This is a strong strategy for the conservation of nitrogen. Phosphorus, however, did not show such a trend. This interesting observation of the study strongly indicated that a sufficient amount of nutrients are retained in the litter during the dry summer period. Atar Singh Yadav Rajesh Kumar Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 129 136 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.06 Assessment of Salinity in the Field Soils of Azamgarh and its Relation to their Physico-chemical Properties Soil salinity generally decreases the plant growth by creating osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, and imbalance of ions required for the optimal growth. Azamgarh is an agrarian district and is also one of the salinity prone zones of eastern Uttar Pradesh; hence, a detailed study on soil quality analysis was carried out to delineate soil salinity status and its relationship with soil properties. The collected soil samples were moderate to extremely alkaline in reaction and clayey in texture. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 0.76 to 48.3 dS/m. The correlation study showed that soil salinity had a significant positive impact on soil pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), sulfate (SO4 2-), carbonate (CO3 2-), and bicarbonate (HCO3 -), however, it was negatively correlated with calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions. Our findings revealed that all the soil samples were in general saline-alkaline in nature. Therefore, the awareness on reclamation, drainage, and improved irrigation together with sustainable agricultural practices should be encouraged among farmers to reduce the severity and further spread of salinization in the agricultural lands of Azamgarh district. Anjali Singh Vishal Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 137 145 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.07 Characteristics of Groundwater Quality in the Aquifer of Indo- Nepal Border of Balrampur City The study deals with the groundwater quality of aquifers at the foothills of Shivalik at the Indo-Nepal border of Balrampur. Here, the water samples were collected from those areas where industrial and municipal wastewater leachate were mixed with the groundwater. The groundwater is used as potable water for drinking and other purposes, like irrigation and farming. The analysis has been done especially during the summer and winter season. In this season, the groundwater quality is seriously affected by various types of pollutants that are discharged from industrial sources and leached down and mixed with the groundwater after percolation. The result shows that groundwater quality is affected by the continuous contamination of pollutants. Zaheen Hasan Divya Darshan Tewari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 146 151 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.08 Assessment of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Heavy Metals in Plants: A Review Heavy metal stress is one of the major problems affecting the agricultural productivity of plants. Soil is contaminated by heavy metals, such as, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, and As. Plants suffer from oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals and lead to cellular damage. Heavy metals induce clastogenecity, aneugenicity, recombinogenicity, gene mutation, and DNA damage. There are several genetic endpoints that can be used as biomarkers of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, e.g., comet assays, micronuclei frequency, meiotic analysis, mitotic analysis, and chromosomal aberrations. Plants are very useful in environmental monitoring and assessment as they provide a very wide range of genetic endpoints. They may be used as biosensors of the genetic toxicity of environmental pollutants. Kumkum Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 152 155 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.09 Quality Improvement of Reverse Osmosis Waste Waterthrough Plant-Based Techniques: A Mini-Review <p>Water is a scarce resource in this millennium, especially clean water. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely applied to achieve this goal. But, reverse osmosis waste water (ROWW) cannot be further utilized, due to the presence of a high concentration of salts, heavy metals, and pollutants of feed water. The solution to this problem may lie in employing plants for this very purpose that is phytoremediation. Phytoremediation converts this waste water into usable water with the help of plants. This is an eco-friendly technique that decontaminates the waste water in a very economical way. This mini-review thus, emphasizes on quality improvement of RO waste water through plant-based techniques with a special focus on recent studies carried out in this area. Keywords: Phytodegradation, Phytoextraction, Phytoremediation, Phytovolatilization, Reverse osmosis (RO), Reverse osmosis waste water (ROWW), Rhizodegradation.</p> Kumud Kant Awasthi Garima Awasthi Yamini Tiwari Tanvi Singh Anjali Awasthi Sudhakar Srivastava Rudra Deo Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 156 161 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.10 Effects of Ethyl Methane Sulphonate on the Growth and Yield of Vigna radiata L. var. PDM-54 Plants Mutagenesis is a potential tool to be employed in crop improvement and may offer greater opportunities for generating suitable genetic variability. Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) treatments were quite effective in bringing a reduction in different parameters. In this experiment, the seeds of Vigna radiata PDM-54 were used as the test material. The presoaked seeds were treated with 1% EMS for 4, 6, and 8 hours. After treatment seeds were washed in running water and sown along with control in three replicates. Data were recorded on different morphological and cytological parameters in order to assess the mutagenic effect of EMS. The germination percentage of treated seeds displayed a sharp decrease with the increase in treatment duration. The germination was very poor at 6 and 8-hour treatment. The survival percentage was also found to be inversely proportional to the duration of treatment. The yield per plant displayed a gradual decrease with the increase in treatment duration. It indicates that EMS can be used as an effective mutagen to generate enough variability to be subsequently exploited in any crop improvement program. Madhu Prakash Srivastava Kanchan Awasthi Vikash Verma Neetesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 6 02 162 164 10.18811/ijpen.v6i02.11