INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-12"> <p>International Journal of Plant and Environment (IJPE) is an official organ of International Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB). It is an inclusive peer reviewed interdisciplinary journal aimed to advance the interaction of plant and environmental science for the betterment of all stake holders of the society, present and in the future. IJPE has been founded by a team of botanists and environmental scientists to accelerate the gait of scientific advancement and establishing its value. We publish the research in environmental botany and allied fields aimed to benefit the scientific society, academicians and policy makers.</p> <p>IJPE welcomes high quality submissions on all aspects of environmental contamination or air, water and land, bioremediation strategies for pollutants, bio-indication, eco-system dynamics and forest degradation, environment and biodiversity conservation, sustainable agriculture, global change impacts on plants. Responses of plants to abiotic stresses (salinity, heavy metals, drought, temperature stress, flooding etc.) and biotic stress (plant insect, plant microbe interaction etc.), plant environmental interaction at morphology, physiology and molecular levels. Submitted manuscripts are evaluated on the basis of methodological rigor and high ethical standards besides, perceived novelty.</p> <p>IJPE intends publication under different categories, viz., original research papers, short research communications, research update/ mini reviews, commentaries. The original research articles, mini reviews/ research update shall not exceed 10 printed pages. The articles published under the short communication category are expected to contain path breaking researches requiring urgent publication. The length of such articles shall be restricted to five printed pages.</p> </div> </div> <div class="row">&nbsp;</div> en-US (Rudra Deo Tripathi) (MRI Publication Pvt. Ltd) Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Evaluating Secondary Metabolites from Extracts of Mimusops elengi to Assess its Antimicrobial Activity Against Human Pathogens <p>An investigation was conducted to determine the possible phytochemical components from the methanolic, ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Mimusops elengi. Among the phytochemical screening of these extracts, methanolic extract showed that the whole plant was rich in alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds and saponins. The study was extended by analysing the potent bioactive compounds in various extracts of Mimusops elengi using GC/MS and analyzing their functional groups using FTIR to establish the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the plant extract against bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and fungal pathogens (Candida albicans), for which the M. elengi plant has been significantly used as a multidrug constituent. The major compounds identified by GC/MS were cis pinen-3-ol, undecanoic acid, 3 carene, citronellol, hexadecenoic acid, caryophyllene, dodecanedioic acid and vitamin A aldehyde. These compounds have different therapeutic and antimicrobial effects. The methanolic extracts of the plant were found to be more effective against these two bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) and fungi (C. albicans) compared with the ethanolic and chloroform extracts. The findings and results of this paper could help to evaluate and assess the therapeutic multipurpose use of M. elengi more rationally and can create an awareness of the need for in situ conservation of this most wanted medicinal plant.</p> Leena Das, Vilas A. Kamble Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-Parkinsonian Activity of Mushrooms Against Orofacial Dyskinesia Induced by Reserpine in Wistar Rats <p>A neurological ailment called Parkinson’s disease (PD) which distresses roughly 1.5% of people above age 65 in the world. Dopamine nerve cell death (DA) in the Substantia nigra parc compacta (SNc) with the development of a striatal DA deficiency are two features of PD.As of now, the focalization of PD is uncertain. The goal was to assess the neuroprotective efficacy of ethanolic extracts from different mushroom species viz. P. ostreatus, A. bisporus and C. cibarius are against orofacial dyskinesia (OD) by reserpine and their in vivo antioxidant status. In this study, reserpine (1-mg/kg) was repeatedly administered on alternate days over a five-day interval to produce vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) and tongue protrusions (TPs) in rats. Evaluation of reserpine-induced catalepsy was done. Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) concentrations were examined in prosencephalon in response to an ethanolic extract of mushrooms. The histological evaluation of attenuating oxidative stress also shows the effectiveness of all these mushroom extracts. In animal models of Parkinson’s disease produced by reserpine, P. ostreatus, A. bisporus and C. cibarius were found to have a therapeutic impact against the disease.</p> Namrata Dargude, Rupali Patil, Chandrashekhar Upasani Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticle from Calanthe masuca (D.DON) Lindl. Leaf Extract and Evaluation of Biological Activity - An Endangered Orchid (Orchidaceae) <p>Researchers looked at the therapeutic benefits and biological properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and created and tested novel eco-friendly methods to make them using an extract from the Calanthe masuca (D. Done) Lindl plant (Orchidaceae). After the C. masuca leaf extract was transformed, X-ray diffraction confirmed the existence of crystalline nanoparticles by revealing different peaks. The AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape, with a size ranging from 2 to 50 nm and a diameter of 0.500 nm, according to transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of silver nanoparticles in the synthetic leaf components was confirmed by a 428 nm absorption peak in the UV-visible spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the nanoparticles’ size, while FTIR analysis revealed their inclusion of many functional groups. They proved their antibacterial effectiveness by producing silver nanoparticles and tested them against different human pathogenic pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus (6.5 ± 1.0 μg/ ml), Bacillus subtilis (7.6 ± 1.0 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (10.4 ± 1.0 μg/ml), Streptococcus oralis (7.6 ± 1.0 μg/ml), Aspergillus niger (9.3 ± 1.0 μg/ml), and Candida albicans 7.5 ± 1.0 μg/ml) and the high zone of inhibition were seen in Escherchia coli and Candida albican. This study demonstrates the biomaterial’s promise for use in the production of silver nanoparticles using green chemistry methodology. An ecofriendly way of generating nanoparticles is highlighted in this paper, which highlights their promising applications in biology and medicine.</p> Duraisamy Kavitha, Veeraiyan Nandagopalan, Seedar Deborah Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Influenced Ionome, Reduced Growth, Altered Pigments and Stomatal Morphology in Mentha arvensis L. <p>Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are being enormously used in agriculture, aquaculture, textile, cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries. CuO NPs are reported to make their presence in soil water and air due to their release in the environment. Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae) is commercially grown for essential oil across the world due to its medicinal value. The present study reports the responses of M. arvensis to CuO nanoparticles (0.0–5.0 μg mL-1) after 18 d exposure. The build-up of high copper concentrations in M. arvensis plant tissues (roots and leaves) confirms the internalization and movement of CuO NPs in shoots. CuO NPs modified ionomes of roots and leaves of M. arvensis. Both roots and leaves of M. arvensis plants exposed to CuO NPs exhibit altered levels of micro (reduced Fe, Mn, and upregulated Zn and Mo contents) and macronutrients (decreased Ca, Mg and K levels). Further, CuO NPs decreased biomass, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and relative water contents and increased carotenoids and anthocyanin contents in M. arvensis leaves. Besides, CuO NPs caused alteration in stomatal morphology of test plant. The present study suggests sustainable use and environmental release of CuO NPs due to their possible bio-toxic consequences.</p> Archana Dwivedi, Subodh Kumar, Poornima Vajpayee Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Insights into the Air Quality Indices and its Linkage with Diwali Festival Celebrations in Delhi, India in November 2023: A Case Study <p>Air pollution, especially during the winter months, is a cause of concern in the capital city of Delhi and adjacent areas. Particulate matter (PM10, PM5.0, and PM2.5) generated from various sources has been implicated in poor air quality and adverse impacts on human health. In the present study, the status of air pollution in Delhi in November 2023 was assessed. Diwali was celebrated on 12th November 2023. The air quality indices (particulate matter) data was retrieved from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) website pre-Diwali and post-Diwali to comprehend the trends. During Diwali, an increase in PM10 in 2023 compared to the year 2022 was noted. A 42% reduction of PM10 was noticed in 2023 compared to the average concentration in 2021. However, a 45% overall increase of PM2.5 was observed compared to 2022. The air quality two days prior to Diwali was poor. Though the Government has taken many steps and various awareness campaigns have been launched, people have not stopped bursting crackers in Delhi. However, to mitigate the pollution levels, certain other initiatives such as community festivities and traditional celebration methods, should be incentivized and propagated</p> Jyoti Bhola, Anudeepti Bajpai, Saiyam Jain, Daksh Jain, Monika Koul Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Survey on the Disease Incidence of Alternaria Blight of Mustard in Eastern and Central Parts of Uttar Pradesh <p>A survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and Incidence of Alternaria blight in rape seed mustard during the Rabi seasons of 2021–2022 and 2022–2023. The survey was conducted in seven Eastern and central Uttar Pradesh districts, namely Ayodhya, Barabanki, Gonda, Jaunpur, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Varanasi. The five villages were selected randomly in each district. The district Lucknow has recorded the highest average Percent Disease Incidence (58.95%) followed by Kanpur (54.56%) and Varanasi (58.89%). The minimum Percent Disease Incidence was recorded in Ayodhya (40.23%) in the year 2021–22. In the year 2022–23 The Kanpur district recorded the maximum percent disease incidence (58.82%) followed by Lucknow (57.23%), and Jaunpur (53.00%). The minimum percent disease incidence was recorded at Ayodhya district (46.69).</p> Mithilesh K. Pandey, B.S. Chandrawat, Saba Siddiqui, Akshay Kumar, Sandeep K. Singh, Devashish Rai Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Value Addition and Advertising of Non-Timber Forest Products for Promoting Livelihood of Forest-Fringe Tribes: A Case Study of Sonajhuri Haat under Bolpur-Sriniketan Block in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India <p>This research article focuses on the holistic approach of e-commerce potentiality of products prepared from non-timber forest products through interventions of value addition and other methods of in innovation. The study has been carried on in Sonajhuri Haat near Santiniketan-Bolpur in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India by analyzing 10 (ten) products intervened through value addition to a minimal extent. The approach and impact of high intervention with proper and befitting value addition to these products can have much better pricing for earning much more profits if marketed through an online platform dominated by good numbers of globally reputed e-commerce Companies. The present study is trying to come out with incidental strategic solutions by which the traditional handlers of non-timber forest products will be able to have a comfortable livelihood through a larger financial gain. This will remove the bottleneck of viable marketing scope and opportunity and the venture will be flourished in a meaningful manner</p> Subhra Bandopadhyay, Debnath Palit Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Research Article Enrichment in Growth, Yield and Quality Attributes of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) Cv. Camarosa, through the INM <p>An experiment was conducted in the Farm Unit 02, Department of Agriculture, IIAST, Integral University, Lucknow, during the two subsequent years i.e. 2020-21 and 2021-22 to study the Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) on growth, yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa.Duch) cv. Camarosa. All doses of biofertilizers viz, Azotobacter, Azospirillium and PSB were applied as root treatment when transplantation was done in the plots according to treatments. The experiment’s two year's worth of data were combined and examined. During research, height of the plant increased to (15.60 cm), the number of leaves was counted (19.68), spread of plant (13.81 cm). Those plants treated with T7 were recorded to be greater than other treatments. While the lowest result was the plant height (9.93 cm), the of leaves number was counted (13.94), the spread of the plant was recorded (9.90 cm) in the T0 (control), on the other hand berry length (5.57 cm), width of berry (4.25 cm), weight of berry (22.84 g), counted berries per plant (22.83), yield of the berry per plant (508.98 gm ), berry yield/block (10.17 Kg) and berry harvest quintals/ha-1 (272.08 q/ha) were recorded in T7. The maximum TSS (14.40 Brix), total sugars (7.71%), TSS acid ratio (23.43), and minimum acidity (0.60%) were recorded in T7 while maximum acidity was found at T0.</p> Anupam Singh, Md A. Nayyer, Amrit K. Singh, Saba Siddiqui, Ashish Kumar, Shiv Poojan Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Survey and Documentation of Cyanobacteria from the Muthi Area of Jammu (J and K), India <p>In the present paper a study was undertaken to enumerate the blue-green algae from the Muthi area of Jammu. A total of 21 Cyanobacteria pertaining to 15 genera and seven families have been identified. Nostocales dominate over other orders, with the major genus Oscillatoria having ten species, followed by Chroococales with five genera and Stigonematales with two genera. Within the order Nostocales, the dominant family is Oscillatoriaceae, which is represented by 87% of all the species, followed by Nostocaceae (10%), Scytonemataceae (4%) and Rivulariaceae (3%). In the order Chroococcales, Chroococcaceae is the dominant with 86% species, followed by Entophysalidaceae with 16% cyanobacterial species under this order. Order Stigonematales is represented by a single family of Stigonemataceae with two cyanobacterial species. These cyanobacterial species belong to different habitats; 22 species are epilithic, followed by seven miscellaneous, seven epipelic, six terrestrial, three epiphytic, and three free-floating. The highest numbers of cyanobacterial species were epilithic, and the lowest numbers were epiphytic and free-floating.</p> Shastri P. Shukla, Khushbu Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Floral Diversity in the Vicinity of Sugar-Mill of Semikhera, Bareilly, UP, India <p>Sugar industry is a crucial agricultural sector, producing large amounts of effluent affecting the environment. In order to study the effect of sugar mill effluents on native floral diversity in the locale of Kisan Sehkari Sugar Mill, Semikhera, Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh), the physicochemical analysis of the mill’s effluents and native soil was carried out. pH, EC, TDS, TS, BOD, COD, and metals were recorded. Order of the heavy metal concentrations in soil and sugar mill effluent was: Fe&gt; &gt;Mg&gt;, Cu&gt;, Zn&gt;, Ni&gt;, Cr&gt;, Pb&gt;, Cd, and Fe&gt;Mg&gt;Zn&gt;Cr&gt;Mn&gt;Cu&gt;Pb&gt;Co&gt;Ni&gt;Cd respectively and pH, EC, TDS, BOD, and COD were also significantly above the permissible limit. Extensive field surveys were conducted thrice a year to explore floral diversity. Results found a total 88 species of vascular plants. The Fabaceae family was found to be dominant, followed by Asteraceae, Moraceae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, Myrtaceae, and Amaranthaceae. Additionally, two species of pteridophytes from the families of Pteridaceae and Thelypteridaceae were also collected. As per taxonomic studies, 82% of species belonged to dicotyledons, while only 14% were monocotyledons. The present study’s results demonstrated that the effluents’ physicochemical properties are significantly higher compared to a permissible level determined by CPCB (2017). Dominant species were above 70 %, common species were 40 to 70% and rare species below 40 %. Overall results indicate the possibility of eco-restoration of waste disposal sites of sugar mill areas with these native species growing luxuriantly without showing any toxic effect.</p> Priyanshi Singh, Aanchal Verma, Alka Kumari Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Wonders of Duckweed: Unveiling the Intriguing World of the Smallest Free-Floating Aquatic Plant <p>Duckweed is a member of the family Lemnaceae, which also includes the fastest-growing angiosperms, Wolffia. There are 36 species of duckweed, which are divided into five genera. The duckweed plant is widely distributed in ponds and ditches and is known for its high nutritional content, which includes a high protein as well as fat content, making it an excellent source of food for humans, poultry, and fish. Due to its ability to accumulate various chemicals and heavy metals, it plays an important role in phytoremediation. There is a high potential for biomass and starch accumulation in this plant. Biofuels can be produced from duckweed as the biomass accumulates rapidly. This review aims to present the latest research on duckweed species in an updated manner, providing information on the latest nutritional profile, molecular taxonomy, biomass accumulation, duckweed as a model plant, and duckweed’s impact on the environment and sustainability.</p> Nikita ., Munish Sharma, Munish Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Harnessing Nature’s Potential: A Review of Copper Nanoparticle Biosynthesis and Its Applications <p>Nanomaterials are being used in an increasing number of engineering and technological domains. One of their main advantages is that nanomaterial's properties differ from those of bulk materials with the same composition. One can readily change their properties by changing the size, shape, and chemical environment of nanoparticles. Due to its biological applications, copper nanoparticles have become a particular emphasis among other nanomaterials. Conventional methods of synthesizing copper NPs are harmful and toxic to human health and the environment because of the involvement of chemicals associated with environmental toxicity. Therefore, biological methods are emerging to fill the gap and tackle the problem. Green synthesis outperforms chemical and/or biological techniques by employing biological molecules generated from plant sources in the form of extracts. Through to the use of plants, plant extracts, fungi, algae, bacteria, biomolecules, and other microorganisms, the green synthesis method creates nanomaterial in a clean, safe, economical, and ecologically friendly manner. To make these biological techniques acceptable for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles, they go through a carefully monitored assembly process. There were reduced risks of failure, lower costs, and easier characterization with green approaches, making them more successful for generating NPs. The present review provides an overview of the various sources that can be used to make copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) using eco-friendly techniques. Employing naturally available substances and low-energy processes offers a sustainable method for generating nanomaterials.</p> Manisha Singhal, Deepak S. Rajawat Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Therapeutic Efficacy of the Plant Bioactive Phytochemicals with Special Reference to Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Phenolics and Cardiac Glycosides <p>Medicinal plants constitute a vital part of the environment and ecosystem, playing an integral role in human health at a global level. These have a historical background of pharmacological relevance for curing various health-related issues. The therapeutic role of plants lies in the wealth of active principles that reside in their various parts. The plant-derived compounds or phytochemicals, including alkaloids, phenolics, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides, have constantly been evaluated and served as a vital source for drug discovery against numerous ailments such as diabetes, cancer, oxidative stress, respiratory problems, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases etc. Plant alkaloids are a group of organic bioactive compounds comprising nitrogen atoms in its chemical structure. Terpenoids comprise isoprenoid units, phenolics are aromatic metabolites with phenol hydroxyl groups, whereas cardiac glycosides are bioactive secondary phytochemicals that comprise aglycone linked to sugar molecules. These metabolites are biosynthesized through various biochemical mechanisms or pathways in the plant system. The enthusiasm towards bioactive compounds in therapeutics is because of its least side effects. India is a rich source of medicinal plants, making it one of the chief contributors in the pharmaceutical industry. The present review will discuss the therapeutic efficacy of phytochemicals with special reference to alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and cardiac glycosides.</p> Namrata S. Gupta Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Comprehensive Review of Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) <p>Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), an important oilseed crop, is highly susceptible to the devastating disease called Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This review paper provides a comprehensive summary of the present understanding of the disease, encompassing its epidemiology, pathogen biology, interactions between the host and pathogen, management strategies, and the latest advancements in research. There is an urgent need for effective disease management strategies, as evident by the financial consequences of Sclerotinia stem rot on the production of Indian mustard. This review aims to comprehensively analyze research articles to enhance our understanding of the disease and expedite the development of enduring solutions to mitigate it's impacts. Rapeseed mustard is susceptible to various pathogens, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, and phytoplasma. Sclerotinia stem rot is the most severe fungal disease affecting Indian mustard. Extensive studies and development have been conducted on the occurrence of Sclerotinia rot in rapeseed mustard. This study examines these endeavors in relation to disease cycle, epidemiology, pathogen taxonomy, nature, and control. Moreover, the study aims to present a comprehensive summary of potential future goals and research methodologies concerning Sclerotinia rot in rapeseed.</p> Devashish Rai, Saba Siddiqui, Amrit K. Singh, Mithilesh K. Pandey, Anupam Singh, Dheer P. Singh Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A review Biofertilizer and Organic Manures in Strawberry Production <p>Strawberries, those delightful and nutritious jewels, are indeed a treat for the taste buds, but their journey from seed to fruit involves more than meets the eye. While inorganic fertilizers are a significant source of nutrients, an overreliance on these chemical concoctions can be detrimental to both soil health and the environment. This is where the superhero of sustainable agriculture enters the scene: bio-fertilizers. Bio-fertilizers are the unsung champions in the quest for eco-friendly farming. Unlike their chemical counterparts, biofertilizers contain living microbial inoculants, offering plants a nutritional boost that conventional fertilizers may miss. Striking the right balance is crucial, as excessive use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, especially on fruits like strawberries that are enjoyed without peeling, can pose risks to human health. Strawberries’ growth, yield, and quality are intricately linked to the judicious use of organic manures and biofertilizers. These bioagents not only enhance nutrient availability for the plants but also contribute to the soil’s long-term fertility. It’s a win-win, ensuring a bountiful harvest while preserving the health of the land. In the grand symphony of nutrient management for strawberries, adopting integrated nutrient management (INM) practices emerge as a key player. By carefully orchestrating a mix of organic and inorganic inputs, INM becomes a guardian of long-term soil fertility. This, in turn, becomes the bedrock for sustained strawberry development, ensuring not just quantity but also harvest quality. So, as we savor those tiny, delectable strawberries, it’s worth appreciating the behind-the-scenes choreography of nutrient management that contributes to their growth, yield, and the luscious quality of fruits.</p> Amrit K. Singh, Mohd H. Siddiqui, Md A. Nayyer, Anupam Singh, Anupam Singh, Dheer Pratap, Devashish Rai, Devashish Rai, Abhijeet Srivastava, Kushal Vaishya Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Trace Elements and Water-Soluble Ionic Species Associated with Ambient Particulate Matter over Lucknow City, India <p>Clean air is the foremost essentiality to ensure a good life on our planet. Nonetheless, escalating air pollution levels in urban spaces have caused an increase in morbidity and mortality. The air pollution predicament requires a comprehensive understanding of the local scale. In this perspective, the present study was carried out to assess the load of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3 and associated chemical profiles, including trace elements and ionic species of the commercial, industrial and rural areas over Lucknow city during winter months of 2022–23. The average 24-hour PM2.5 concentrations (Avg ± SD) in the commercial, industrial, and rural areas were recorded to be 189.1 ± 57.6, 177.7 ± 36.5, and 141.6 ± 23.0 μg/m3, respectively, with a percentage exceedance over national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) of 224 to 215, 196, and 136%. Similarly, the concentrations of PM10 were 337.9 ± 109.2, 285.6 ± 53.1, and 234.9 ± 43.0 μg/m3, with 238, 186, and 135% exceedance, respectively. SO2 level ranged from 8.7 to 23.9 μg/m3, whereas NO2 level ranged from 16.8 to 45.7 μg/m3 for the study period. Based on the air quality index (AQI) values, commercial (353), industrial (344), and rural (317) areas fell in the “very poor” category of AQI. 12 studied elemental species in descending order were Al&gt;Fe&gt;Mg&gt;Zn&gt;Pb&gt;Mn&gt;Cr&gt;Cu&gt;Ni&gt;Co&gt;Cd&gt;Mo while the sequence of 8-ionic species was SO4 2-&gt;Cl- &gt;K+&gt;NH4 +&gt;NO3 -&gt;Ca2+&gt;Na+&gt;F–. Residents of Lucknow city have been found to be frequently exposed to particulate pollution and related chemical elements, particularly during haze and inversion occurrences in the winter. It is, therefore, imperative to assess and develop pollution abatement strategies to combat urban air pollution.</p> Priya Saxena, Ankit Kumar, Komal Sharma, Altaf H. Khan, Alka Kumari Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Physiological, Cellular and Biochemical Responses to Salt Stress in Vigna mungo and Cicer arietinum : A Preliminary Study <p>A major environmental stress that affects plant growth negatively is salt stress. It is responsible for damaging an array of commercial plants utilized as food sources in several countries. Plants being sessile, are unable to avoid the effects of salt stress. The primary goal of this specific research was to analyze the morphological, cellular, and biochemical impact of salt stress on two commercially important crops, Vigna mungo and Cicer arietinum plants by subjecting them to two concentrations of salt viz. 50 and 100 mM while maintaining control. The crops were subjected to stress and growth, biochemical and genetic parameters were assessed. The growth parameters Showed that stress inflicted by plants significantly affected shoot length and root length and the quantitative change in adventitious roots. It was also observed to destroy both species’ tetrad structure of the vascular bundles. The impact was also visible on the cell division, where the mitosis was observed to decrease considerably. The biochemical assays indicated that NaCl significantly induced stress in these plants by reducing the catalase activity along with the chlorophyll pigments and causing an accumulation of proline and phenolic compounds. The comparative study showed that V. mungo’s response to the salt stress exceeded that of C. arietinum at similar salt concentrations, indicating that assessing the soil for these specific stress inducing ions before crop plantation will help in enhancing the productivity of the land, thereby increasing the yield.</p> Bhoomika Sharma, Suba Manuel, Padmashree Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Characterization of Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze Extract Using GC-MS: Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties <p>indica (L.) Kuntze leaves were tested to explore their chemo profiling through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples were also analyzed to evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant efficacy of the plant extract was evaluated using the FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS methodologies. The results revealed that extract had a high concentration of flavonoids and phenols and exhibited the highest antioxidant properties reflected by the inhibition of free radical DPPH (30.87 ± 0.001%). The plant extracts showed antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) bacteria with 10 and 9 mm inhibition zones, respectively. The GC-MS studies exhibited the presence of 25 compounds. The major constituents are desogestrel (100%), n-hexadecanoic acid (8.59%), 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z) (8.5%), gamma.-sitosterol (7.57%), and palmitic acid, TMS derivative (3.31%). The GC-MS analysis exhibited that leaves consist of bioactive compounds, such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and fatty acids.</p> Shriram B. Fasale, Mansingraj S. Nimbalkar, Mahesh P. Mane, Mahendra B. Waghmare, Sudhakar S. Khot Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Copper level and Fatty acid Composition among Healthy and Cracked fruits of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. Bhagwa <p>Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) is commercially valuable fruit belonging to Punicaceae family. Copper is essential micronutrient that plant require for various processes. Copper level and fatty acid composition was studied in order to find variation among healthy and cracked fruit of Punica granatum L. Fatty acid composition of pomegranate leaves was determined using hyphenated GC-MS technique while copper concentration was found using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Variation among fatty acids was found in healthy and cracked fruit. Predominant fatty acid in healthy fruit was Linolenic acid (40.95%) while Palmitic acid (41.38%) was in highest proportion in cracked fruit. Stearic acid was found absent in cracked fruits. Findings from AAS showed that excess copper (1.77ppm) was found in leaves of plant bearing cracked fruit. Variation in fatty acid and absence of stearic acid at early developing stage can be used for possible cracking detection in pomegranate fruit also, high copper level increase cracking in pomegranate, so pesticides and fungicide containing copper should be used in adequate amounts in order to reduce cracking in pomegranate fruits.</p> Pooja Mesurani, Vijay R. Ram, Somiya Anam Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000