INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-12"> <p>International Journal of Plant and Environment (IJPE) is an official organ of International Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB). It is an inclusive peer reviewed interdisciplinary journal aimed to advance the interaction of plant and environmental science for the betterment of all stake holders of the society, present and in the future. IJPE has been founded by a team of botanists and environmental scientists to accelerate the gait of scientific advancement and establishing its value. We publish the research in environmental botany and allied fields aimed to benefit the scientific society, academicians and policy makers.</p> <p>IJPE welcomes high quality submissions on all aspects of environmental contamination or air, water and land, bioremediation strategies for pollutants, bio-indication, eco-system dynamics and forest degradation, environment and biodiversity conservation, sustainable agriculture, global change impacts on plants. Responses of plants to abiotic stresses (salinity, heavy metals, drought, temperature stress, flooding etc.) and biotic stress (plant insect, plant microbe interaction etc.), plant environmental interaction at morphology, physiology and molecular levels. Submitted manuscripts are evaluated on the basis of methodological rigor and high ethical standards besides, perceived novelty.</p> <p>IJPE intends publication under different categories, viz., original research papers, short research communications, research update/ mini reviews, commentaries. The original research articles, mini reviews/ research update shall not exceed 10 printed pages. The articles published under the short communication category are expected to contain path breaking researches requiring urgent publication. The length of such articles shall be restricted to five printed pages.</p> </div> </div> <div class="row">&nbsp;</div> en-US (Rudra Deo Tripathi) (MRI Publication Pvt. Ltd) Thu, 28 Dec 2023 07:04:40 +0000 OJS 60 OBITUARY <p>.</p> Prahlad Kishore Seth Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Alleviating Salinity Stress in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): A Mini Review <p>In the present era salinity stress becomes a huge obstacle for global agricultural productivity. It is reported that crop loss due to salinity alone is 20 to 50%. In the present review one denotes and preambles the significant role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as a green bioinoculant in mitigating salinity stress in spinach. Spinach is a salt-sensitive crop and salinity decreases spinach seedling germination, and root-elongation thereby lowering its productivity. The PGPR alleviates the detrimental effects of soil salinity in spinach by improving plant defense mechanisms. Such PGPR not only would increase the productivity of spinach but also of other crops as preamble here. This would lead to increased crop yield and hence meet the food demands of large population. The detrimental effects of soil salt stress in plants include nutrient uptake inhibition by interfering directly with ion transporters in the root plasma membrane (e.g. K+ selective ion channels) and by inhibiting root growth.<br />However, work on alleviation of detrimental effects of salinity is scarce and needs to be explored more. This review is just and attempt to draw the attention of such agriculturists and scientists to acknowledge this aspect of spinach and PGPR. This is a healthy relation of spinach and PGPR and hence PGPR can be a futuristic, potential bioinoculant for spinach to cope with abiotic stress viz, soil salinity stress.</p> Purnima ., Dhawal Ajay, Singh Pooja Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Lacunae of Microbial Study along the Bhavnagar coast <p>Soil microorganisms account for a large portion of the Earth's biodiversity and play an important part in biogeochemistry cycles (BGC) and ecosystem functioning. It is difficult to comprehend the variety of this diverse microbial population in the soil environment. Soil microbes play an important role in organic matter decomposition, mineral nutrient release, and nutrient cycle. Microorganisms and their microbial activity are one of the soil health metrics; they may also be used as a bioindicator of pollution. Extensive research has been focused on soil microbial diversity. The Bhavnagar coast has anthropogenic activity such as industries near the coast, a ship-breaking yard (Alang and Sosiya Ship Breaking Yard), and human influence. This review covers microbiological research conducted along the Bhavnagar coast of Gujarat, India which has concrete identification methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog<sup>TM</sup> microtitre plate approach, in-depth biochemical test, and other authentic identification methods. The Bhavnagar coast has been less studied in terms of microorganisms, and more research has to be done in undiscovered areas.</p> Hardik Gosai, Pradeep Mankodi Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Case Study on Role of Microbial Consortia Assisted Decomposition of Agro-waste for Improvement of Soil Organic Carbon – A Step Towards Sustainable Development <p>The availability of optimum soil organic carbon (SOC) in the field is associated with an optimal soil structure, water-holding capacity, nutrient availability, aeration, growth of microflora and thus, crop productivity. In the present investigation, the role of Azolla, poultry waste, urea and cattle dung, as a source of nitrogen, was initially investigated for maintaining the optimum carbon: nitrogen (C: N) ratio during the composting of sugarcane agro-waste. The results showed that Azolla-fortified agro-waste had a significantly fasterrate of composting in comparison to other sources of nitrogen. In the next part of work, Azolla-fortified matured compost was used for the isolation of 7 fungal strains, which were combined with 6 bacterial strains for the preparation of microbial consortia. The consortia were used for composting of different agro-wastes on open fields of 15 farmers in the presence of cattle dung slurry (nitrogen source) and the compost was then applied on the field for optimizing the level of SOC on the fields of SOC deficient<br />soil. It was found that consortia-induced composting was completed in about 30-45 days as compared to the normal 60 days and the matured compost had achieved the ideal C:N ratio (20:1). The addition of this compost for two cycles significantly increased SOC level (13% and 25% in the first and second cycle, respectively). The study developed the standard operating procedure (SOP) for effective composting of diversified agro-waste (~200 tones) within a short period (~30–45 days) of time in the presence of microbial consortia (200 L ton-1) and cattle dung slurry to retain optimum C:N ratio (40:1–50:1) during composting. The study suggests the application of microbial consortia + cattle dung slurry + diversified agro-waste for on-field rapid composting process and its use as biofertilizer to enhance the SOC of deficient soil in agricultural fields for sustainable development.</p> Sonal J. Shinde, Arun D. Dixit, Ranjeet J. Shanbag, Yogesh Kulkarni, Mahesh Y. Borde, Vinayak H. Lokhande Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Optimizing Variation in Agronomic Traits of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon winterianus in Different Treatments and Altitude of Uttarakhand, India <p>Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon winterianus are aromatic grasses, valued for essential oils. This study aims to develop propagation protocol for C. flexuosus and C. winterianus also evaluating transplanted seedling performance at altitudes ranging from 400 to 1900 m in Uttarakhand, India. Stumps were sterilized using a solution of 1% tween 20 and 1% bavistin for 20 minutes. Twenty-five stumps in triplicates (10 cm in length) were used for each treatment. Organic fertilizers used were manure, organic compost, vermicompost, organic compost + vermicompost. Inorganic fertilizers used were urea (46 mg N kg-1), NPK (12-32–16 mg kg-1), DAP (18–46-0 mg kg-1), NPK+urea and DAP+urea. Auxins used were IAA, IBA and NAA at concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1. The result indicates, that sprouting was 100% in C. flexuosus and C. winterianus. Plant growth of one year treated with DAP+urea exhibited maximum plant height<br />(121.00, 115.33 cm), tiller/clump (107, 84), leaves/tiller (6.67, 7.33), and herbage weight/plant (1027.96, 990.67 g/plant) in C. flexuosus and C. winterianus respectively. Altitude and treatment showed significant growth response at p ≤ 0.05 in growth of C. flexuosus and C. winterianus. Maximum plant height (125.13, 125.00 cm), tillers/clump (115.33, 95.00), leaf area (4358.67, 5721 mm2), herbage weight/ plant (1200.93, 1227.85 g/plant) and seed number/plant (377.67, 311.33) was observed in DAP+urea at an altitude of 400 m. Root length (73.70; 70.60 cm) was maximum in NAA 250 mg L-1 at an altitude of 400 m in C. flexuosus and C. winterianus respectively. This study recommends use of DAP+urea for mass cultivation of each species at various altitudes and agro-climatic conditions; thereby ensuring efficient protocol for mass cultivation and genetic heterogeneity.</p> Riya Gupta, Neelu Lodhiyal, Sushma Tamta, Niranjan Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Evaluation of Dynamic Photosynthetic Performance of Plants by Chlorophyll Fluorescence related Parameters in and outside of Agnihotra Atmosphere <p style="font-weight: 400;">Agnihotra is a Vedic method to purify the atmosphere and the whole environment and bring Nature back to Harmony. It is the simplest and basic Yajnya tuned to the biorhythm of sunrise and sunset. This study has evaluated the physiological performance of 14 plants (11 trees, 1 shrub, and 2 crops) that are present in a place where Agnihotra has been regularly performed to that of a place where it is not performed. Both places had regular anthropogenic interferences. It is inferred that the Agnihotra atmosphere contributed positively to the morphological development (leaf area) and physiology (chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters) of the studied plants</p> Harshita Singh, Shashi B. Agrawal, Madhoolika Agrawal, Ulrich Berk Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Molecular Interaction Between Arabidopsis Aquaporin and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Harpin (HrpZPss) Through Molecular Docking Tools <p>Harpins constitute one unique group of elicitor proteins secreted through the type 3 secretion system during plant-pathogen interactions and induce various responses like the formation of pores in the membrane, hypersensitive response, and systemic acquired resistance in non-host plants. Harpins from different bacterial sources elicit different responses in plants which may be due to their structural differences. As of today, the complete mechanisms of action of different harpins are lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the protein-protein-mediated functional association between members of the aquaporin PIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and harpin (HrpZPss) from Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae through an in-silico molecular docking approach using ZDOCK. We identified a motif (HINPAVTFG) present in AtPIP1;3 as a functional signature sequence. Most of the residues from this signature sequence showed<br />a positive and close interaction with the HrpZPss protein. The quality assessment and residues-wise fluctuation of the selected protein were analyzed with the help of molecular docking. The stability of predicted models of docked complexes (AtPIP1;3, HrpZPss and HrpZPss-AtPIP1;3 complexes) were checked by molecular dynamics simulations using WEBGRO. The RMSD values of AtPIP1;3, HrpZPss, and HrpZPss-AtPIP1;3 complexes were calculated at 50 ns. The stable conformation of the AtPIP1;3 and HrpZPss were observed at 14.1 and 13.2 ns, respectively, while the stability of the HrpZPss-AtPIP1;3 complex was achieved at 20 ns. The present in-silico analysis demonstrates a positive interaction between harpin (HrpZPss) and aquaporin (AtPIP1;3) which would help in understanding the harpininduced signaling responses in non-host plants.</p> Kishori Lal, Vinay K. Singh, Debashish Dey Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Seed Extracts of Annona squamosa <p>The plant Annona squamosa, popularly known as custard apple, is a member of the Annonaceae family and is indigenous to South America and the West Indies. It is highly popular due to its folk medicinal as well as nutritional and ornamental value. The plant has many medicinal properties like antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, anticancer, antimalarial, antioxidant, and insecticidal. Seed extracts of this plant were prepared in petroleum-ether, chloroform, and acetone solvents separately by soxhlet extraction method. 15 chemicals were found in both the petroleum-ether and chloroform extracts after being analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatograms of acetone extracts also revealed the existence of 23 main peaks.</p> Manisha ., Mahesh C. Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Design and Experimentation of a Laboratory Steam Distillation Setup for Extraction of Essential Oil from Eucalyptus leaves <p>This paper incorporates the design, construction, and experimental run to extract essential oil by steam distillation. Eucalyptus leaves with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 cm. The steam flow rate was 3.5 kg/hr, and the volume of the extraction column was 22 lit with 0.4403m height. Designed shell &amp; tube heat exchanger and constructed with 5 no. of tubes; with overall coefficient 384.02 W/m20C, pressure drop at the tube side was 2.121 kPa, at shell side was 0.0419 kPa. After the experimental run of 2.5 hours.; collected 40 mL of essential oil was collected from 5 kg of eucalyptus leaves.</p> Kajal J. Sareriya, Piyush B. Vanzara Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorophyll Content and Carotenoids from Cocos nucifera L. Leaf using Various Solvents in Saurashtra Region <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; text-align: justify; text-indent: 36pt;">Chlorophyll and carotenoids are significant photosynthetic pigments present in higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Plants contain three major pigments called chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll c. Chlorophyll participates in the photosynthesis process, which transforms light energy into chemical energy. Species differences in chlorophyll pigment concentration exist. Orange, yellow and vivid red colors in vegetables and fruits are due to carotenoids. The health of plants is significantly influenced by these two pigments. In addition to having excellent antioxidant qualities, chlorophylls and carotenoids show therapeutic effects on oxidative and inflammatory disorders. They also possess anti-cancer effects. Chlorophyll and carotenoids support healthy blood coagulation and help in protecting skin, hormonal balancing, and deodorization. The major objective of this study is to identify plant with a high content of carotenoids and chlorophyll since both of these bioactive compounds have several applications in herbal medicine. In the current work, carotenoids and chlorophyll were extracted from three varieties of Cocos nucifera L. – Dwarf, DT and tall of Veraval coast<br />of Saurashtra region, Gujarat using DMSO, methanol, diethyl ether and 80% acetone. The amounts of chlorophyll and carotenoids were measured using a spectrophotometer. Maximum extraction of chlorophyll and carotenoids was found in methanol and DMSO from the leaves of the dwarf variety of C. nucifera L.</p> Jalpa L. Kotecha, Vijay R. Ram Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modified Ovule Clearing Technique to Examine Monosporic Apinagia-type Embryo sac Development in Indotristicha ramosissima (Podostemaceae- Tristichoideae) <p>In this current study, a re-examination of various stages of monosporic embryo sac development in Indotristicha ramosissima (Podostemaceae-Tristichoideae) has been attempted utilizing a modified ovule-clearing technique specifically tailored for this unique angiosperm family. It is worth noting that ovules within the family Podostemaceae typically contain silica, which poses challenges for tissue clearing. Consequently, there has been limited success in ovule clearing within this family. My investigation confirmed the presence of a 4-nucleate and monosporic Apinagia type of embryo sac in this species, in contrast to prior beliefs of embryo sac following a bisporic Allium type pattern. Additionally, my findings revealed that the embryo sac develops only after the degeneration of one of the dyads during megasporogenesis.</p> Charu K Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cercospora duddiae Welles. (1923) alters the Nutritional Content of Garlic Leaves after Inducing leaf Spot Disease <p>As a vegetable, garlic leaves can be used in cooking. They are used in various recipes, primarily in India; Maharashtrian people frequently use garlic leaves. The foods taste better because of the powerful flavor and aroma. In addition, it can enhance the flavor of the foods rather than using no garlic leaves. It can be steamed, fried, or added to the soup. The study report is based on data collected over five years from five distinct Maharashtra zones. Garlic is one of the onion family plants on which the fungus Cercospora duddiae grows. Pathogens causing infection then produce leaf spot disease. Pathogen C. duddiae consumes basic nutrients from leaves during infection, changing the contents from a healthy one. The current study establishes the pathogenicity of C. duddiae on garlic plant leaves. It quantifies the<br />nutrients in fully developed disease spots before contrasting them with healthy ones. According to the, the following values have changed: water content decreased by 38.333%, total carbohydrate by 36.764%, reducing the sugar by 5.263%, fibre by 22.580%, protein increased by 47.619%, amino acids increased by 25%, dry matter increases by 29.677%. Lipids contents, vitamin C contents and total chlorophyll contents are absent in diseased samples</p> Dongre M Arun Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 New Records of Rarely Occurring Genus Zygnemopsis Skuja Transeau from Darbhanga district, North Bihar, India <p>In an aquatic ecosystem, the freshwater green macroalgae are known as primary producers. They are commonly used as a traditional food in several parts of the world. The present study identifies two species of rarely occurring Zygnemopsis Skuja Transeau from different localities of Darbhanga district, North Bihar. The two species of genus Zygnemopsis viz. Zygnemopsis lamellata and Zygnemopsis transeauiana under the order Zygnematales have been described. Of these two species, Z. transeauiana Randhawa is reported for the first time from Bihar and Z. lamellata Randhawa is reported for the second time from Bihar.</p> Anuradha Kumari, Ankit K. Singh Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Various Approaches Used to Increase the Growth and Yield of Linseed Linseed Crop <p>Linseed (Linum usitatissimum) is a significant rabi oilseed crop in India, ranking second in terms of cultivation area and seed production after rapeseed mustard. It is an ancient plant that has been cultivated for its fibre and oil for centuries. Oilseeds demand higher nutrition for their optimum production as they are energy-rich crops. Despite the continuous growth in terms of their area and the use of increased fertilizers, there has been no proportional growth in their production. This review intends to offer insights into the possibilities of agronomical as well as biotechnological breakthroughs in overcoming the difficulties faced in its production by a thorough analysis of recent studies and instances. Farmers and researchers can collaborate to increase production and fulfill the rising demand for this<br />significant oilseed crop by integrating various approaches of biotechnology. Various studies in support of this are discussed in detail in the present review.</p> Leena Shakya, Archana Singh, Ashish Agnihotri, Shivangi ., Jai Prakash Muyal, Shahid Umar, Shubhra Barwa, Sunil Kumar Dhiman Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Some Useful Plants in Treatment of Ganga Water Pollution and Human Healthcare in India <p>Long distance of 2510 km long river basin, originating from Bhagirathi from Gangotri glacier in Uttarakhand, The Ganga is the most sacred river of India which is symbolic of purity and moksha and plays a crucial role in the growth of Indian civilization and economy. The river Ganga which is often called “Holy Ganga” or “Mother Ganga” has been exposed to many anthropogenic pollutants for several decades, and due to that it has grasped a serious and evolving problem. Anthropogenic sources include industrial release, domestic wastes, and municipal sewage. Pollution due to religious activities such as religious bathing and idol immersion is also a major concern. According to earlier studies, the 12 municipal towns located along the Ganga river basin leading to Haridwar, discharge nearly 89 million liters of municipal sewage into the river. High amounts of inorganic and organic pollutants are coming from industrial effluents from different industries. These industrial organic and inorganic pollutants are very serious issues for human health as they are carcinogenic and mutagenic to humans which ultimately cause neurological and physiological and other disorders. Like yoga, India can offer numerous plant-based treatments to the world that can benefit the whole on a larger basis. Learning from old-age traditions of Ayurveda, various trees and herbs along the plains of river Ganga are customarily used by many local and rural people in meeting their day-to-day needs and health care. The study highlights some of the potential plant species like Achyranthes aspera, Acorus calamus, Aegle marmelos, Ajuga bracteosa, Arisaema tortuosum, Aristolochia indica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus religiosa, Gloriosa superba, Helminthostachys zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Tephrosea purpurea, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia bellirica and Withania sominifera etc., that can be combinedly used with modern medical science with the vast invaluable knowledge to provide the effective and affordable treatment for various diseases caused by polluted water of Ganga.</p> Mridul K. Shukla, Anand Prakash, Aparna Shukla, Nidhi Tiwari, Bineet K. Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000