Nano-pesticides: Composition, Bioavailability and Release Mechanism in the Environment

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Vanishree C. Raveendran
Vanisha Godara
Dion Mistry
Mahipal S. Sankhla
Kumud K. Awasthi
Gajendra P. Singh
Payal Lodha
Garima Awasthi

Abstract

The present investigation was carried out during 2015-2016. The change was analyzed for a period of 10 years (2005 to 2015). Landsat
operational land imager (OLI) and thematic mapper (TM) satellite images (of 30 m resolution) of the years 2015 and 2005 were used.
Mapping was performed on a 1:50,000 scale using ArcGIS software, and for image enhancement, ERDAS imagine software was used.
Extensive Ground Truthing was employed to supplement accuracy assessment and a total of 133 ground truth points were taken for
data collection. The overall classification accuracy of the mapping was 92.48% and the Kappa coefficient was 0.87. The study area was
delineated via visual image interpretation technique into 10 LULC classes viz., forest, forest scrub, agriculture, grassland, snow, waterbody,
horticulture, wasteland, and agroforestry respectively. The forest cover density map was classified into three classes on the basis of crown
density viz., Closed Forest, Open Forest and Forest Scrub. Furthermore, two additional classes grassl and non-forest were also delineated.
The results obtained from change analysis were used to identify the drivers of forest cover change using a close-ended semi-structured
interview schedule. The responses were assigned scores for the ranking of drivers using statistical analysis. The comparison of maps of
2005 and 2015 revealed that the total forest area has reduced by 0.48% from 2005 to 2015. The area under agriculture has declined by
0.87% during the same period. Horticulture has shown an increase of 0.8% during the decade. It was also found that the area under
Closed Forests reduced by 1.05% from 2005 to 2015 while Open Forests, forest scrub, and grassland increased by 0.57 %, 0.27% and
0.08% respectively. In terms of area, conversion of Closed Forest into Open Forest 851.48 ha), Closed Forest into Forest Scrub (104.77
ha), and Open Forest into Forest Scrub (33.26 ha) ascribed to forest degradation whereas conversion of 111.42 ha, 59.87 ha and 26.61
ha of land from closed forest, forest scrub and open forest into non-forest can be attributed to deforestation.

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How to Cite
1.
Raveendran VC, Godara V, Mistry D, Sankhla MS, Awasthi KK, Singh GP, Lodha P, Awasthi G. Nano-pesticides: Composition, Bioavailability and Release Mechanism in the Environment. IJPE [Internet]. 7Nov.2022 [cited 27Nov.2022];8(02):116-21. Available from: https://ijplantenviro.com/index.php/IJPE/article/view/1419
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Research Articles