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This study investigates the ecological changes in grassland vegetation at Banaras Hindu University’s horticulture field. Caudate
methods were used for vegetation analyses. In 72 experimental plots of 1×1m2, repeated quadrat sampling yielded 176 herbs. Plant
functional types such as legumes, non-legumes, grasses, forbs, and sedges were classified as C3, C4, native, and non-natives traits
based on their frequency, abundance, and density. From the rainy season of 2016 to the summer season of 2019, the mean values of
frequency, abundance, and density against the N gradient were calculated. Therefore the results showed that, nitrogen is essential for
the competitive equilibrium of C3 and C4 species. This study suggests that N deposition-induced changes in competitive interactions
may be disadvantages to native species that thrive in low-nutrient environments, such as N2-fixers, ultimately leading to changes in the
composition of plant communities. In comparison to N2 fixers, non-N2 fixers appear to be more effective at using extra N for growth.
Our findings show that the diversity of grasslands has dramatically shifted from native to introduced species, proving that non-native
space invaders are destroying the rich grassland ecosystems around the world. By changing the dominant species and its response to
which species dominates the response at the community level, this change in abundance may alter the ecosystem functions. Based on
our study, the vegetation was found to be heterogeneous up to N dosage of 60 kg/ha/year.
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